# Learning on Low-Dimensional Image Data (1)

Posted on Sat 18 April 2020 in learning

## Introduction

Many problems in machine learning are difficult to interpret because the high-dimensional state spaces elude intuition. Certain specific traits of these spaces - often referred to as the curse of dimensionality - influence distribution of objects, metric properties and other aspects in ways, making it difficult to apply geometric imagination and methods - leave alone differential (smooth) ones - to the manifolds expressing the decision regions of - in particular classification - problems in these spaces.

In this article we will restrict ourselves to two- or three-dimensional state spaces in order to learn from these much more accessible objects.

## Decision Regions in Toy Spaces

### How many classification problems can an image of two pixels create?

Let $N$ define the number of possible pixel values of a grayscale image and $p$ his number of pixels. The totality of all these images forms a $p$-dimensional state space and is called the Classification Toy Space of dimension $p$ or $\bm{T_p}$.

Consider the following problems:

• Binary classification $(k=2)$:

For $N = 256$ and $p = 2$, $N^p = 65536$ possible $2$-pixel images exist. $T_2$ contains $2^{N^2}$ different subsets 1 2 and every such subset $U$ together with his complement $\overline{U}$ can be interpreted as decision regions of a particular binary classification problem. Obviously, the two classification problems $(U,\overline{U})$ and $(\overline{U}, U)$ are equivalent. After removing the trivial cases $(T_2,\emptyset),(\emptyset,T_2)$ and considering equivalent partitions the same we have finally $2^{N^2-1}-1$ non-trivial binary problems. Each of them can be represented as a single $N \times N$ image with two colors, marking the complementary decision regions. Note that the latter form a binary partition of $T_2$.

• Classification with $k$ classes $(k \geq 2)$:

The Stirling Number is the number of partitions of a set of $n$ elements by $k$ non-empty sets: $S(n,k) = \bigg\{{n\atop k}\bigg\} = \frac{1}{k!}\sum_{j=0}^k (-1)^j\binom{k}{j}(k-j)^n$ For $k=2$ and $n=N^2$ we get the previous case. In general, the number of classification problems with $k$ categories in $T_p$ is $S(N^p,k)$. In the case $p=3, \: T_p$ is a cube.

### Regression Toy Spaces

In order to consider regression problems, we will add an additional dimension to every element of classification toy spaces. This dimension contains values in [0,1] that should in general be interpreted as probabilities before the decision step of a classification problem. The corresponding space is called Regression Toy Space or $\bm{{\Theta}_p}$. In case, the context is unambiguous, we simply use the term Toy Space.

### Examples  Spiral-shaped regions for a binary classificator $(k=2)$ Decision regions for classification problem with multiple categories $(k=10)$

To be continued...

1. including the empty set

2. because the power set of a set of $M$ elements has itself $2^{M}$ elements